Understanding Citta or Chitta Meaning: 5 Chitta Bhumi According to Yoga Sutras

Chitta the Consciousness

If you are a dedicated yoga practitioner or have a profound understanding of yoga philosophy, you’ve likely encountered a seemingly mystical phrase during your journey: “Yoga Chitta Vritti Nirodha”

This phrase, often referred to as a ‘sutra,’ holds immense significance in the realm of yoga and is the second among the 196 aphorisms contained in one of the most revered texts in the field of yoga, the Yoga Sutra of Patanjali.

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    Yoga Chitta Vritti Nirodha encapsulates the very essence of yoga practice, providing a profound insight into its purpose and potential. But what does it mean? How does it relate to the complex landscape of the mind and consciousness? And why should it matter to you as a yoga enthusiast?

    In this article on “Chitta” (also spelled as ‘Citta’ in English), we will delve deep into the heart of yoga philosophy to unravel the mysteries of the mind, its components, and the transformative power of yoga practice.


    Understanding Chitta Meaning

    At the core of yoga philosophy, Chitta or Citta simply means consciousness that shape our experiences and perceptions. It represents the mind, thoughts, emotions or in nutshell the metaphysics of our mind. It is the canvas upon which the art of yoga is painted, and it holds the key to understanding our own consciousness.

    Citta, in its essence, is more than just the mind; it encompasses the entire spectrum of our mental landscape. It is the repository of our thoughts, memories, emotions, and the countless fluctuations that occur within our inner realm. To grasp the profound nature of yoga, one must first come to terms with Chitta and its role in our journey toward self-realization.

    Chitta in Yoga Philosophy

    In the philosophy of yoga, Chitta serves as a gateway to the exploration of the human psyche. It introduces us to the interconnectedness of our consciousness with the broader universe and the profound influence of the three qualities of nature known as Trigunas—Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas.

    These three qualities are the building blocks of Chitta, both in us and in the universe at large. They play a pivotal role in shaping our personalities, influencing our behavior, and directly impacting our mental states. Just as the universe is composed of these qualities, so too is Chitta, making it our source of consciousness.

    • Sattva guna – The quality of purity and harmony in the mind.
    • Rajas guna – The quality of activity and restlessness in the mind.
    • Tamas guna – The quality of inertia and darkness in the mind.

    Variability of Chitta

    One of the most intriguing aspects of Chitta is its ever-changing nature. The composition of Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas within Chitta fluctuates over time, thereby influencing our behavior, perceptions, and intellect. At times, we may feel highly active, curious, and engaged (Sattva); at other times, we may experience lethargy and inertia (Tamas). The interplay of these qualities within Chitta guides our inner and outer experiences.

    Understanding the variability of Chitta is essential in yoga practice. It sheds light on why some days we may be naturally inclined to engage in intensive physical asanas, while on other days, deep meditation and introspection may be more appealing. Chitta is the compass that guides our yoga journey, and by comprehending its fluctuations, we gain insights into the ebb and flow of our inner world.

    3 Components of Chitta

    1. Manas: The Mind’s Tapestry

    Manas, often referred to as the “mind,” is the foundational instrument within Chitta. It serves as the bridge between our inner and outer worlds, enabling us to process sensory information, thoughts, and emotions. Think of it as the lens through which we perceive reality.

    The Role of Manas

    • Manas regulates our external sensory systems and gathers raw data from our surroundings through the five senses: sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch.
    • It is responsible for perceiving objects and recognizing the presence of thoughts and emotions, whether they be moments of joy or sorrow.

    In Yoga Sutra, Power of Manas is said to be control itself and the sensory system (five senses – vision, hearing, smell, taste and touch) is referred to as “psyche” or “Mati.” Manas is not merely a passive observer but an active participant in our inner dialogue, constantly processing information and influencing our responses to the world.

    Manas is the gateway through which we interact with the external world and where the journey of yoga begins.

    2. Buddhi: The Intellect’s Discerning Light

    Buddhi, often translated as “intellect,” is the second instrumental component of Chitta. It stands as the sentinel of discernment, making choices based on its interactions with Manas, previous experiences, and the information gathered from the external world.

    The Role of Buddhi

    • Buddhi decides whether to accept or reject raw data collected by Manas through the senses.
    • It processes information, enabling us to realize and understand the nature of objects and thoughts.
    • Buddhi’s decision-making ability is the seed from which awareness sprouts, leading us toward a deeper understanding of the world around us.

    Completely Awakened Buddhi In its highest state, Buddhi is described as “completely awakened.” In this state, the mind (Manas) is silent, no longer entangled with external sensory inputs. Instead, it aligns with the soul, fostering a profound sense of awareness and inner stillness.

    Buddhi is the torchbearer that illuminates the path to true self-awareness.

    3. Ahamkara: The Birth of ‘I’

    Ahamkar Creator

    Ahamkara, the third component of Chitta, arises from the decisions made by Buddhi. It is often translated as the “I” sense and is responsible for shaping our identity and self-concept.

    Feelings and Thoughts Stemming from Ahamkara

    • Ahamkara gives birth to the concept of “self,” leading to the development of our personality and self-identity.
    • Our feelings and thoughts about objects and experiences originate from this “I” sense, influencing our likes, dislikes, and perceptions.

    Understanding Ahamkara Consider a scenario where a dog bites you. From that experience, Ahamkara begins to define your identity as “someone who dislikes dogs.” Ahamkara has the power to shape our understanding of the world and our place within it.

    Ahamkara is the sculptor of our self-concept and the lens through which we view our experiences.

    Chitta Bhumi: Types of Chitta

    yoga calms the mind

    Chitta is a complex entity with various states of existence, collectively referred to as ‘Chitta Bhumis’ in yoga. The term “Bhumi”, which liteally translates as area, refers to stages or states of consciousness here. It signifies different levels or phases of the mind’s development and transformation, each with its distinct qualities and attributes.

    The five states of chitta or Chitta Bhumis encompass the entire spectrum of consciousness, from scattered and restless to controlled and serene. These are Kshipta Chitta, Mudha Chitta, Vikshipta Chitta, Ekagra Chitta and Niruddha Chitta.

    1. Kshipta Chitta: The Scattered Mind

    Kshipta Chitta represents a state of mind characterized by restlessness and constant distractions. In this state, the mind is scattered, pulled in different directions by a myriad of thoughts, desires, and external stimuli. It’s like a turbulent sea, making it challenging to maintain focus during yoga practice. Techniques like breath control (Pranayama) and meditation are invaluable for calming the Kshipta Chitta and harnessing its potential.

    2. Mudha Chitta: The Dull Mind

    Mudha Chitta is associated with a lack of clarity and enthusiasm. It’s a state of mental inertia where one feels lethargic and unresponsive to external stimuli. This type of Chitta can hinder progress in yoga, making it crucial to employ practices that invigorate the mind and body, such as dynamic yoga sequences and mindful breathing exercises.

    3. Vikshipta Chitta: The Distracted Mind

    Vikshipta Chitta is marked by intermittent periods of concentration interspersed with distractions. It’s akin to a flickering flame that alternates between moments of brightness and dimness. Achieving a more steady and focused state of Chitta is a common goal in yoga, and techniques like Trataka (gazing meditation) can help enhance concentration and reduce distractions.

    4. Ekagra Chitta: The One-Pointed Mind

    Ekagra Chitta is the state of unwavering concentration, where the mind is entirely absorbed in a single point of focus. The yoga actually begins in the state of Ekagra chitta. In this state, distractions fade into the background, and the practitioner experiences a profound sense of inner stillness. Yoga practices, such as Dharana (concentration) and deep meditation, aim to cultivate Ekagra Chitta, unlocking the full potential of the mind.

    5. Niruddha Chitta: The Controlled Mind

    The pinnacle of Chitta mastery is represented by Niruddha Chitta, where the mind achieves complete control over its fluctuations. In this state, the incessant chatter of thoughts comes to a standstill, akin to a tranquil lake with undisturbed waters.

    Niruddha Chitta is the ultimate goal of yoga, and it is said to lead to profound states of Samadhi (enlightenment). Advanced meditation techniques and profound self-realization practices are employed to attain this elevated state of consciousness.

    Understanding these types of Chitta not only enriches our comprehension of yoga philosophy but also guides us on our personal yoga journey. Each type of Chitta represents a unique phase in the evolution of our consciousness, and by recognizing and working with these phases, we can navigate our inner landscape more effectively.

    Why we need to understand concept of Chitta?

    The understanding and mastery of Chitta in yoga hold profound benefits for practitioners of all levels. As you embark on your yoga journey, delving into the complexities of the mind and consciousness, you’ll discover how Chitta awareness can enrich your practice and transform your life.

    1. Enhanced Self-Awareness

    Understanding Chitta provides a window into the depths of your own consciousness. By recognizing the various facets of your mind and the patterns of your thoughts, you gain insight into your true nature. This heightened self-awareness allows you to understand your reactions, desires, and motivations, fostering personal growth and self-improvement.

    2. Improved Focus and Concentration

    One of the primary challenges in modern life is the constant barrage of distractions. Chitta mastery equips you with the tools to calm the restless mind and enhance your ability to focus. With improved concentration, you can approach your yoga practice and daily tasks with unwavering attention, increasing efficiency and productivity.

    3. Emotional Resilience

    Chitta awareness empowers you to navigate the complex landscape of emotions more effectively. By recognizing the ebb and flow of emotional states within your Chitta, you can develop emotional resilience. This resilience enables you to respond to life’s challenges with equanimity and grace, rather than reacting impulsively.

    4. Deeper Meditation and Mindfulness

    The practice of meditation and mindfulness hinges on understanding and working with Chitta. As you become proficient in Chitta control, you’ll find that your meditation sessions become deeper and more transformative. The ability to observe thoughts without attachment and maintain a clear, present awareness is a hallmark of advanced meditation practice.

    5. Enhanced Yoga Practice

    Chitta awareness is the cornerstone of a profound yoga practice. It allows you to adapt your practice to your mental and emotional states on any given day. Whether you’re dealing with a scattered mind (Kshipta Chitta) or aiming for one-pointed focus (Ekagra Chitta), your understanding of Chitta guides your choice of asanas, pranayama, and meditation techniques, making your practice more effective and fulfilling.

    6. Holistic Well-Being

    Ultimately, Chitta mastery extends beyond your yoga mat. It permeates all aspects of your life, leading to holistic well-being. You’ll find that your improved self-awareness, emotional resilience, and focus spill over into your relationships, work, and daily interactions. The benefits of Chitta understanding ripple through your existence, promoting a more balanced and fulfilling life.

    Incorporating Chitta awareness into your yoga practice is not just an intellectual pursuit—it is a transformative journey that can lead to profound personal growth and inner harmony. As you continue to explore the depths of Chitta, you’ll uncover its endless potential to enrich your life and deepen your connection to the essence of yoga.

    Yoga Chitta Vritti Nirodha

    yoga sutra of patanjali chapter 1 verse 2

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    “Yoga Chitta Vritti Nirodha” in its essence, this phrase means “Yoga is the cessation of the fluctuations of the mind.” It signifies the profound goal of yoga—to achieve a state where the ever-moving waves of thoughts and emotions in the mind come to a serene stillness.

    The State of Chitta at the Beginning of Yoga

    At the outset of the yoga journey, Chitta often resembles a turbulent sea with countless ripples and waves. The mind is in constant flux, swaying between thoughts, desires, and distractions. “Yoga Chitta Vritti Nirodha” invites practitioners to embark on the path of self-discovery and inner peace by gradually quieting the mental turbulence.


    Our journey into the realm of Chitta in yoga has provided valuable insights and tools for personal growth and transformation. Chitta awareness offers enhanced self-awareness, improved focus, and emotional resilience, enriching both your yoga practice and your daily life.

    The profound concept of “Yoga Chitta Vritti Nirodha” beckons you to explore further in a dedicated article, where we delve into its depth and practical applications. This concept signifies the stillness of the mind, a central goal of yoga.

    As you continue your yoga journey, may you find inner harmony, personal growth, and a profound connection to yoga’s essence. Chitta is not just a concept; it is a path to self-discovery and inner peace.


    FAQs about Chitta

    Q1: What are the different types of Chitta in yoga?

    In yoga philosophy, Chitta can manifest in various forms, including Kshipta Chitta (scattered mind), Mudha Chitta (dull mind), Vikshipta Chitta (distracted mind), Ekagra Chitta (one-pointed mind), and Niruddha Chitta (controlled mind). Each type represents a distinct state of consciousness.

    Q2: What is the purpose of understanding Chitta in yoga practice?

    Understanding Chitta is essential for self-awareness, improved focus, emotional resilience, and a deeper yoga practice. It empowers practitioners to navigate their inner landscape, adapt their practice to their mental state, and achieve holistic well-being.

    Q3: How can Chitta awareness enhance meditation and mindfulness?

    Chitta awareness allows individuals to observe their thoughts without attachment and maintain present awareness. This depth of awareness enriches meditation and mindfulness practices, leading to profound inner stillness and self-discovery.

    Q4: What is the significance of “Yoga Chitta Vritti Nirodha”?

    “Yoga Chitta Vritti Nirodha” is a fundamental concept in yoga philosophy that signifies the cessation of mental fluctuations—a central goal of yoga practice. It invites practitioners to achieve a state of serene stillness in the mind, leading to self-realization.

    Q5: How can I work on mastering Chitta in yoga?

    Mastering Chitta in yoga involves regular practice of meditation, mindfulness, asanas, and pranayama. It also requires self-reflection, patience, and guidance from experienced teachers. Stay tuned for a more in-depth exploration of this topic in a separate article.

    Q6: Can Chitta awareness benefit daily life outside of yoga practice?

    Absolutely. Chitta awareness extends to all aspects of life, promoting better decision-making, emotional resilience, and overall well-being. It positively impacts relationships, work, and daily interactions, fostering a more balanced and fulfilling life.


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